The early history Argentina can be traced back to two of the oldest indigenous tribes in the region – the Diaguita and the Guarani. The Diaguita were located in the north, close to the Andes, while the Guarani were situated to the south and the east. These two civilizations helped pioneer agricultural cultivation in Argentina, with maize being the chief crop. The Diaguita tribe was responsible for preventing the Incas from expanding their empire into Argentina.
The first European explorers arrived in Argentina during the early 16th century. Juan de Solis landed at the Plata estuary in 1516, but met fierce resistance and was subsequently killed. A number of other explorers also passed through, including Magellan and Sebastian Cabot. In1536, Pedro de Mendoza founded a settlement which he named Santa Maria del Buen Aires (St. Mary of the Fair Winds). The new settlement saw severe turmoil as the local popular resisted the new entrants. The city rose and fall periodically over the next several decades with a final settlement arriving on 11 June 1580, with the help of Juan de Garay.
In 1776, the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata was established which included parts of modern Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. In 1810, a revolution led to the creation of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata. And in 1810, the cabilda of Buenos Aires announced that he would henceforth rule on behalf of King Fernando VII.
IN 1817, representatives of the provinces announced independence from Spanish rule, and the creation of the United Provinces of South America. The new provinces had a far from peaceful existence - the next several decades saw several periods of conflict. This continued until the appointment of General Juan Manuel de Rosas as governor of the Buenos Aires province.
Rosas didn’t last long, however, - a revolution by General Justo Urquiza overthrew his regime. In 1853, Urquiza was appointed the first President of the Argentine Republic.
By the beginning of the 20th century, Argentina had become one of the wealthiest and most powerful countries in the southern hemisphere. During the following century, the country would suffer from a military junta and its economy would collapse. However, due to savvy investments and the rapid growth of tourism (including medical tourism), Argentina miraculously rebounded as a significant world power. From Europeans to Asians to North Americans, Argentina offers an alluring blend of colonial mystique, New World charm, and Old World romanticism. It is little wonder that Buenos Aires, for example, is often called the "Paris of South America." If its medical tourism economy continues to blossom, it might also become the "Bangkok of the West."