Arthodesis for Hammer Toe
Hammer toe is a condition affecting the second, third, or fourth toes. It is characterized by a bend in the middle joint producing a hammer like appearance. The toe may become red and sore at the top where corns or calluses develop from wearing ill-fitting shoes. If left untreated, the muscles that cause the toe to straighten become too weak to straighten the toe even when the shoes are removed. When conservative measure to treat hammer toe have failed, a surgical healthcare procedure, toe fusion or arthodesis, may be necessary.
Conservative Treatments for Hammer Toe Prior to Arthodesis
Before recommending toe fusion, your health care provider may suggest a change to roomier shoes with a boxy toe. He or she might recommend a strap designed for straightening hammer toe plus cushions or corn pads before resorting to surgery. If these options are not successful, arthodesis, a surgical healthcare option, may be performed to straighten the toe. If you have diabetes, poor circulation, or loss of sensation in your feet, consult with your healthcare physician before self-treating.
Arthodesis is usually performed at an out-patient clinic under local anesthesia. A qualified surgeon makes a cut over the top of the affected joint. The joint surfaces are trimmed and the toe is re-positioned. The arthodesis is held in place by a wire connecting the end of the toe and extending across the affected joint. The incision is closed leaving an inch-long thin wire extending from the tip of the toe. About six weeks later, this wire is removed. There may be some discomfort with toe fusion, and crutches may be necessary for several days following arthodesis. It will take up to six weeks for the toe to properly fuse and the surgeon’s healthcare directions must be closely adhered to. After the wire is removed your healthcare provider will clear you to resume normal activities. Complications of toe fusion are rare but may include delayed healing, heart and lung complications, and infection. Persons suffering from diabetes, circulatory disorders, or ailments should learn all about arthodesis and possible risks from their healthcare surgeon.
What Is a Cysto-Diathermy?
A cysto-diathermy is a healthcare procedure in which a rigid or flexible cystoscope is passed into and through the urinary tract of either the male penis, (past the prostrate to the bladder) or the front female passage. This procedure is used to view existing problems in the bladder and kidney areas and answer urological questions that external x-rays may not. A cysto-diathermy retrieves biopsies, produces x-rays, removes kidney stones, and is a non-intrusive healthcare medical procedure.
Who Needs a Cysto-Diathermy?
A cysto-diathermy is for patients who may need such things as an internal biopsy, growth extraction, x-ray, kidney stone removal, diseased areas burned or snipped away, or the bladder flushed. It can also clarify answers that are raised during an MRI or x-ray.
During a cysto-diathermy, a cystoscope allows the healthcare provider to view the bladder and kidney areas. The cystoscope is passed into the urinary tract of the male penis, (past the prostrate to the bladder) or inserted into the front female passage. The cystoscope is equipped to take biopsies, x-rays, flush the bladder with liquid, and view the bladder and kidney area through a telescopic lens. After a cysto-diathermy, a healthcare professional may insert a catheter into the urinary tract to release urine. Anesthesia, spinal block, or anesthetic jelly-inserted into the urethra will be used to displace pain. The procedure lasts ten to twenty minutes. Once the patient voids on his or her own, a healthcare professional will allow his or her hospital release, unless the tests determine that more immediate action is required (like additional surgery). There is little need for pain medication and normal activity, along with work, may resume within three days.
What is Hemi-Colectomy – Left
Hemi colectomy is a healthcare procedure in which a portion of the colon is removed. Hemi colectomy – left targets the left colon for removal. It would be preferable to know about the colon before knowing about the surgical procedure. The colon is a part of the intestine that runs from the stomach to the rectum. It is the lower part of the bowel that runs up to the right ribs and loops across the upper part of the belly under the ribs to the left and passes down the left side before running backwards into the pelvis to end at the rectum which in turn ends at the anus. It is the passageway through which a stool is led to the rectum and finally passed out through the anus. When the left side of the colon becomes diseased and needs to be removed a hemi colectomy – left is performed.
Hemi Colectomy – Left Procedure
This healthcare procedure is performed under general anesthesia. An incision is made on the left side of the abdomen. The diseased part is cut off and the two open ends of the colon are joined together. Sometimes these ends are not joined together immediately and a colostomy is performed to facilitate the passing of stools. The two cut ends of the colon empty stools into a bag inserted in the abdomen. When the cut ends of the colon have healed well and are ready to be joined together another operation is performed to join them and the colostomy bag is removed.
Recovery from Hemi Colectomy – Left
A hemi colectomy - left can be a healthcare procedure spread over a few weeks involving more than one operation. The patient can go back to light work after about six weeks and to heavy work about 12 weeks after the hemi colectomy - left. As it is a surgical process that might involve more than one operation the patient should find out about all the possible complications from his/her healthcare team.
What is Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Ligation
The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel near the heart that allows blood to flow into the descending aorta by bypassing fetal lungs, allowing an unborn child to receive oxygen from the mother through the placenta. Once the baby is born, the ductus arteriosus should close automatically due to sufficient supplies of oxygen. When the ductus arterious doesn’t close in a normal manner within ten days of the baby’s birth, the baby suffers from patent (open) ductus arteriosus (PDA). Healthcare providers can sometimes successfully treat PDA with a drug called indomethacin, but if medication does not work, then surgery is required to close the ductus arteriosus.
Who Would Want Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ligation
Neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and premature infants are at risk of having PDA and require ligation. Neonates with PDA may have symptoms like shortness of breath or poor feeding habits. Sometimes there may not be any outward symptoms at all, but a murmuring noise can be heard when the chest is examined with a stethoscope. The diagnosis can be confirmed with an echocardiogram. If the patent ductus is not closed, then it may lead to heart failure or infective endocarditis. There are no known preventive healthcare methods of this condition. Even older children and adolescents may have undiagnosed PDA, so any respiratory or feeding abnormalities should be reported to a doctor immediately.
Newborns diagnosed with PDA are given medicines initially to close the ductus arteriosus. As a healthcare measure, fluid intake of the newborn is also restricted during this time. If the ductus arteriosus is still not closed after taking medicines surgery is performed. The opening of the ductus arteriosus is clipped by surgery. This can take anywhere from 1-4 hours depending on the severity of the case. Recovery is also variable depending on the progressiveness of the PDA and the age of the infant or child.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a medical operation also known as bypass surgery. As the name suggests, it creates a bypass around blocked parts of the artery. It is done first through the removal of a blood vessel from either the leg or chest. This blood vessel is then used as a graft in the main bypass surgery.
Patients Who Require CABG
Coronary arteries are those small blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients. Some people in the older age group have clogged coronary arteries due to high cholesterol vulnerability and genetic disorders. Clogging of arteries occurs due to the accumulation of fats and cholesterol. This accumulation is known in medical term as atherosclerosis. The full or partial blockage of one or more arteries is ischemic heart disease or coronary artery disease (CAD). This causes the chest pain condition known as angina. The pain might be mild and prolonged or intermittent. Other symptoms are heaviness and pain in the arms, neck, or jaw. All of these complications can be cured through bypass surgery if traditional medicines fail.
The patient is connected to a heart-lung machine, and if the saphenous vein is cut open, the open end of the vein is joined to a hole made in the aorta. The other technique is called the “Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass” or OPCAB. This allows the bypass surgery to take place while the heart is still pumping. And still, another method is to make smaller incisions that do not require the splitting of the breastbone. This is called a “Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass” or MIDCAB. In post surgery health care, the patient is placed in ICU and connected to monitors. Post surgery health care requires keeping the leg of the patient elevated to reduce swelling of leg. Constipation, mood swings, and sleeplessness are some of the things the patient can experience in post surgery health care. However, these are just temporary and can be soon cured.
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